Tick Time

by: Brianna Redlich

The snow has melted, the sun is shining and the ticks are questing! Unfortunately it is getting to be that time of year when the little vampires that hide in the grass start to appear.

What is a Tick?

Besides icky, ticks are a tiny, eight legged parasite with a small head and a large body. Ticks have 3 life stages. They hatch from an egg into a 6 legged larva, molt into an eight legged nymph, then molt again into an adult. After the larva and nymph stages take a blood meal they then molt into the next stage. After mated, adult females take a blood meal them drop off into the environment to lay eggs. The ticks we find in Saskatchewan are mainly found in tall grass and shrubs. There they stand on blades of grass waving their arms (questing) in hopes of getting picked up. Ticks can become active once the temperature is above 4 degrees Celsius.

ticks 1

Which Ticks Are Found in Saskatchewan?

The 2 main kinds of ticks we see in Saskatchewan are the Rocky Mountain Wood tick (demacentor andersoni) and American Dog tick (dermacentor variabilis). Ticks are migrating and expanding their territory. The Deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) that carries Lyme disease is starting to make its way into Saskatchewan.

What Diseases Can Ticks Carry?

The American Dog tick and Wood tick can transmit Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Rickettsia rickettsia). It usually appears suddenly with severe illness lasting 2 weeks. The symptoms of the disease are vague, but can include fever, joint/muscle pain, depression and anorexia. Only about 5% of ticks in a given area are infected and need to feed for 5 to 20 hours. The infectious organism is passed through the salivary excretions.

Deer ticks are the ones that carry Lyme disease. Ticks become infected with the organism when the larva and nymph stages feed on infected mice. The tick is then able to pass on the organism to the next host. It needs to feed for 24 to 48 hours before the organism can be passed to the host through the tick’s salivary gland. This type of tick feeds mainly on deer and are starting to make an appearance in Saskatchewan (SK). There have been a few sporadic cases of Lyme in SK, but most are from dogs that have travelled to a place where Lyme is more common. Acute symptoms of Lyme include fever, lameness, swollen joints, lethargy and depression.

ticks 2

When Are Ticks Out?

Most of the time we notice a large bloom of ticks in spring to early summer. What you may not know it that ticks can be active from early spring to late fall. Below is a chart showing at what time different ticks and life stages are active.

 

American Dog Tick Mountain Wood Tick Deer Tick
Larvae Active April to September.

Feed on midsize animals.

Active March to October.

Prefer to feed on rodents.

Active July to September.

Preferred host is the white foot mouse. They molt and re-emerge in the spring as a nymph.

Nymph Active May to July.

Feed on midsize animals.

Active March to October. Larvae and nymph stages rarely attach to humans and pets. Active May to August. Commonly found in moist wooded areas.
Adult Active April to early August.

Feed on medium size animals, humans and pets.

Most common late spring/early summer. Activity goes down during the hot, dry months. Active October to May as long as the temp. is above freezing. Females feed, hibernate, and then lay eggs in mid to late May.
Misc. Info Adults can go 600 days without a blood meal. Found in deciduous forests where deer can be found.

Can cause Lyme Disease.

 

How to Remove a Tick

If you or your pet are unfortunate enough to have one of these attached to you it is tickimportant to remove it as soon as possible. Here is a step by step guide on how to best remove a tick from your pet or yourself.

  • First of all DO NOT apply anything to the tick such as alcohol or Vaseline before removing it. Also DO NOT try to burn it off with a lighter or a hot needle. Doing these will cause the tick to inject germs into the wound. Essentially you are causing the tick to vomit into your skin. Gross!
  • Use a pair or tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin as possible and pull upward with firm steady pressure. Do not jerk, yank or twist the tick. If the tick doesn’t come off easily, see your local vet to make sure it’s not a lump or something else.
  • After removing the tick you can wash the area with an antiseptic.
  • Contact your vet if you notice any signs of infection such as swelling and redness at the site the tick was attached.

 

How to Protect Your Pet

There are different products you can use to help protect your dog from ticks. There is a new topical* for cats that will be available this year. Luckily in the mean time if your cat is able to groom itself they usually lick most of the ticks off. There are 2 products that I would like to discuss and both are available at your veterinary clinic. One is a topical liquid that is applied to the skin and the other is a chewable tablet.

advantix                Advantix is a small tube of liquid that is applied to the skin and acts as a repellent for ticks and mosiquitos*. The liquid spreads across the body through the natural oils on the skin. When a tick comes into contact with the dog it absorbs the medication through their feet. This is painful for the tick and will cause them to drop off. Ticks that are still alive when they drop off will not reattach and will die within 1 to 12 hours. It is recommended to check your dog for ticks before application because ticks that are already feeding may not come into contact with the drug. Some dogs may have a reaction called paresthesia which can be described as a pins and needle sensation. This can occur within 1 to 2 hours after application. If this happens owners can put 3 drops of vitmain E on the spot of application. If that dosen’t solve the problem than you should bath your dog with Dawn soap. This product is toxic to cats so please do not apply it to them. If you do have cats at home they need to be separated from the dog for 12 hours. Lastly if your dog enjoys swimming or gets regular baths it may decrease the efficacy of the drug, so it may have to be applied every 3 weeks.*

Bravecto is a new product that is a chewable tablet that you bravectogive once and it lasts for 3 months. The tablet is flavored and most dogs take it as a treat. The drug stays in the blood stream, so the tick does need to take a blood meal before it dies. A feeding tick is a dead tick. The rare dog will vomit after being given Bravecto. Seeing how this medication is not on the skin you do not have to separate cats from the dog and the efficacy doesn’t decrease with bathing or swimming.

For more information about these products and others please contact your veterinarian.

Have fun in the sun and remember to stay safe out there.

UPDATE (April 7, 2016): Changes were made to the information for Advantix after a recent seminar with our Bayer Rep.

*UPDATE (April 10, 2017): Information was added for Advantix and there is a new topical treatment coming for cats – Bravecto Feline.

Additional Resources:

Dental Quiz Answers

During the month of February our technologist Meghan put together a Dental Quiz for our clients.  They could answer and turn in their quiz for a chance to win a dental care gift pack.  It wasn’t about getting the answers right or wrong, it was about getting our clients to actively think about dental care in their pets.  Often this is an area of animal health care that is over looked and yet can greatly affect the health, length, and quality of your pet’s life. pup teeth

Below are the questions with the answers and a brief blurb on each.

  1. What percentage of pets over the age of 3 have dental disease? 

80%

By age 3 your pet has gone 1,095 days without brushing his teeth and even if your pet does chew his food and even if it is a dental specific diet it isn’t going to provide the same exact action as brushing with clean water and toothpaste (think of you eating a carrot).

  1. What is an early sign of dental disease that owners may overlook? 

Bad Breath

Bad breath is a sign that the mouth has a build up of bacteria in it.

       3. True or False: Dental disease causes pain.  

True!

As bacteria builds up in the mouth and eventually plaque then tartar forms on the teeth and gums bleed and separate the decay moves under the gums.  All of this leads to the decay of teeth making the mouth very sore.  Until a dental surgery is performed and the teeth can be cleaned above and below the gums as well as removing any unhealthy teeth the pain will not go away.

  1. dental-brush-paste-kitWhich is the “gold standard” of home dental care? 

Brush daily

Although feeding a dental diet, offering dental chews and using an oral rinse are all helpful in dental care, the absolute best thing you can do for your pets oral health is to brush daily!

  1. Which can be brushed off? 

Plaque

Plaque is the first build up of debris on the teeth.  Tartar is the mineralization of that debris and cannot be removed with regular brushing.

       6. How long does it take plaque to mineralize to tartar?

24 – 36 hrs   

This is the reason why brushing daily is the key to keeping teeth healthy.

        7. True or False: Hand scaling teeth on an awake patient is best.

False

Scaling teeth creates tiny microscopic grooves in the surface of the teeth.  Without polishing after scaling the grooves remain, leaving the perfect place for food and debris to continue to build up and eat away at the teeth.  Pets need to be under a general anesthetic so that scaling and cleaning of all the teeth can be done thoroughly and completely, then teeth can be polished to remove the tiny grooves created by scaling.Dent

        8. How often should a dental cleaning be performed on pets?    

Depends on the individual animal.

Some pets require regular annual cleaning, while others can go years before needing a cleaning.  Genetics plays a very large role in the health of teeth and even when the owner does everything right including brushing daily, a dental may need to be performed on a regular basis.

           9. Order the following stages of dental disease from best (0) to worst (4)DDD_dog_gum_disease

__0__ Clean, healthy teeth

__1__ Plaque accumulation

__2__ Gum inflammation (gingivitis)

__3__ Tartar build-up

__4__ Gum separation (periodontitis)

Plaque accumulation and gingivitis can occur almost simaltaneously, so if you couldn’t decide which of these two went first you are essentially correct either way.

         10. True or False: Dental disease can lead to heart and kidney disease.

True

The bacteria in the mouth that causes dental disease spreads throughout the body leading over time to heart and kidney disease.

The Results Are In…

So how did you do?  Did you learn something new?  We sure hope so!

Just like dental care is important for you, so is it for your pet.  The best you can do is work together with your veterinary team to determine what you can do to keep your pet’s oral health at its best, ultimately leading to a longer, healthier, happier life!

Jack Russell Terrier Snarling

Jack Russell Terrier Snarling — Image by © Royalty-Free/Corbis

Want more information on dental care and what is involved in a dental cleaning for your pet?  See the dental section of our website!

 

Bunnies, bunnies, bunnies!

With Easter around the corner it seems a good time to talk about rabbits as pets.  Although they do make good pets, they aren’t the most ideal for children and certainly should not be purchased on a whim, just because, well it is Easter bunny time after all.   As with all new pet additions to any home, it is good to do your research first.  Be aware of the time, feeding, housing and care required for the pet you are considering, and remember that your veterinarian is your best source of information.

Our most exotic knowledgable and experienced tech Meghan has written this great post to provide you with the information you need if you are considering adding a rabbit to your household.

by: Meghan Eggertson

The popularity of rabbits as house pets has grown greatly in the last couple decades.  They are very social, most active in the morning and evening (when their people are usually home), clean, and quiet, making them a great companion for many people.  For most of their domesticated history, rabbits have been used as production animals (for meat and fur) and more recently in research settings – but the needs for these rabbits are different from those of the pet rabbit, which is what will be discussed in this article.

Behaviour

Rabbits are very social animals that like companionship; however, they have very strong feelings of like or dislike towards other rabbits.  When introducing rabbits to one another, do not allow them direct access to each other initially.  Place them in separate cages/areas where they can see and smell each but cannot physically interact for a few days.  If both of the rabbits seem comfortable with the other’s presence, they can be placed directly on either side of a barrier (such as a baby gate or wire mesh cage top).  If they continue to do well in each other’s presence (laying down near each other, touching noses, etc.) the

IMG_1963

Tech Meghan snuggling a surgery patient

rabbits can be allowed in the same area under supervision.  Dogs and cats can also be trained to accept the presence of rabbits, but they should not be left alone with them unsupervised.

Enrichment is necessary for a rabbit’s well-being.  They should be provided with lots of items to chew on such as branches from fruit trees, untreated sisal mats, and cardboard rolls.  They also enjoy toys that they can toss around such as hard plastic cat balls and toy keys.  Places to hide such as tubes or tunnels, boxes, or “igloos” also need to be provided.

If kept in a cage, your rabbit needs to also be provided with access to larger areas where they can run around and exercise.  Exercise is not only mentally beneficial but also helps with digestion and decreases the risk of foot and bone issues.  If inside the house, make sure all electrical cords are covered or out of reach and plants are not accessible.  Be aware that some rabbits also like to chew on baseboards and drywall or furniture; baby gates or exercise pens may be set up to keep them out of certain areas.  If your floors are smooth (wood, tile, linoleum, etc.) place a mat or rug down so that your rabbit can get traction.  Outdoor exercise areas can also be set up for your rabbit using a dog exercise pen.  Make sure the grass is not treated and the area is protected from predators (including dogs and cats).

Housing

There is a wide variety of commercial and homemade options available for housing your rabbit, but they should all follow the following guidelines:

  • Your rabbit should have enough room to stretch and hop around and the roof should rabbit homenot touch its ears when it is standing.
  • The area should be will ventilated (i.e. wire mesh should be used, not glass) as rabbits are more sensitive to the heat than the cold.
  • Due to their sensitivity to heat they should not be placed in direct sunlight.
  • Ideally the bottom should be solid, not mesh, to prevent pododermatitis (foot sores) and plastic because it is easy to clean.

Bedding may consist of hay, wood shavings, newspaper, or a blanket/towel.  Fabric (blanket or towel) should only be used if the rabbit does not like to chew on it.  If using shavings, make sure they are not made of preserved pine or cedar as the fumes from these are toxic to the rabbit’s liver.  Newspaper may cause staining on the feet of light coloured rabbits, but the ink is vegetable based and nor harmful.  If the rabbit is not litter trained the bedding should be changed every couple of days, but if it uses a litter box the bedding only needs to be changed every 1-2 weeks.

rabbit houseLitter training is relatively easy for rabbits.  Use a pelleted litter, like Yesterday’s News, not clumping or clay based litter which if ingested can impact the caecum.  Place the litter box in the area of the cage that the rabbit already uses as its toilet.  It is sometimes helpful to place your rabbit’s hay next to or in the litter box because rabbits like to eat as they defecate.  Clean the box out every day or two.  After a few weeks using the box, it can be moved to whatever location the owner desires and the rabbit should continue using it.

If the housing area needs to be cleaned, diluted vinegar or CLR can be used to remove urine scale.  Let it sit for a few minutes, use a scrub pad if needed, then rinse very well with running water (especially if using CLR).  Bleach can also be used for disinfecting at a ratio of 30mL bleach to 1L water; again, make sure to rinse very well afterwards.

Feeding

Rabbits are vegetarians and hind-gut fermenters – this means they need to re-ingest their “night feces” (caecotrophs), which are a source of amino acids and vitamins.  Caecotrophs look like a little mucous encapsulated cluster of grapes.  Rabbits normally ingest these right away, so they are not usually seen by the owners.

Rabbits eat constantly and require a high fibre diet.  The majority of their diet should be hay: not only is it high in fibre, but it wears the teeth down and can be grazed on all day long.  Grass or timothy hay is ideal; alfalfa hay is high in calcium and protein and can lead to obesity and urinary crystals.  Make sure the hay looks and smells fresh and is stored in a dry area.timothy-hay

Pellets are good as a more concentrated source of nutrients.  They should be timothy (not alfalfa based), have no artificial colours, and be uniform.  “Mixed ration” type food is not ideal as some rabbits pick out their favourite ingredients which can lead to a deficit in vitamins and minerals.  Pellets should not be fed ad-lib but restricted to about 20% of the daily diet; most recommended feeding amounts on bags are for commercial rabbits and are usually more than what a pet rabbit needs.  Offer the pellets just once daily, and whatever isn’t eaten in a couple of hours should be removed.

A variety of fresh vegetables can also be fed as a supplement to the hay and pellets.  Limit the amount of fruits and carrots given as these are high in sugar.  Some greens such as kale, spinach, alfalfa, and dandelion greens should also be fed in moderation as they are high in calcium which can be hard on the kidneys.  The best vegetables to feed include broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrot tops, parsley, cauliflower leaves, parsnip, and green beans.  If a change in diet needs to be made, it should be done over at least a 5 day period so that the rabbit’s gastrointestinal system has time to adjust.

Salt and mineral blocks or vitamin supplementation are not needed as long as the rabbit is receiving a balanced diet (as described above), unless specifically recommended by your veterinarian.  Some rabbits chew their mineral blocks out of boredom which may result in harmful levels of calcium.

A good supply of fresh water should always be available to your rabbit.  Rabbits have high water consumption and a 2.5kg (5.5lb) rabbit can drink a cup of water a day.  Water is extremely important in the digestion of the rabbit’s high fibre diet and therefore should not be withheld for any length of time.

Types

Lionhead, dwarf, angora, lop…. the list goes on.  Although there are many types of rabbits when it comes to the information provided above, all pet rabbits are the same – they all require the same stimulation, housing, and feeding.  The only thing to consider is that longer-haired rabbits, such as the angora, may require additional coat care with brushing and possible shaving of the backend to prevent matting and urine scalding.

Rabbits truely are a fun and interactive pet and can provide a lot of companionship. If you do decide to get a pet rabbit, it is recommended that they receive a yearly veterinary visit (just like cats and dogs!) with a veterinarian with rabbit experience to make sure there aren’t any underlying health issues. If you are considering getting a rabbit (or alreay have one) and have any other questions, please call the clinic and we will be more than happy to help.

Additional Resource:

House Rabbit Society

 

What’s In Your Backyard?

by: Jennifer Oldfield

Where is all the snow?  Normally at this time of year we are just waiting for the snow to melt so we can enjoy the outdoors and the warmth of spring. Instead we have been fortunate and are enjoying an early taste of the summer to come.  With no snow, now is the perfect time to take a good walk around your yard.

Look everywhere for all potential hazards.  Some things are very obvious – broken branches, sharp objects, etc.  There are however, some items that may not seem to be of concern, but are definitely still hazards.  Look for kid or dog toys, especially anything that may be easy to swallow, or items that are broken or breaking.

toyMagnum, my 7-year-old Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever found one of those items that you may not think is a hazard, especially if you have dogs that don’t tend to eat toys.  He loves to pull them apart but he never eats the bits!

This is the end to one of those kid’s plastic golf clubs.  Chewed, and as you can see, split at the seam.  I found my boy sitting outside with this stuck on his foot.  Somehow he had managed to step on it just right and got a toe – including the pad – stuck inside!  Although not a frantic emergency, still an emergency.  I had no idea how tight this was and leaving it too long could cause damage to the toe, even potentially leading to an amputation.toy on foot

We needed to get it off, but touching it caused him to scream in pain.  Even just the lightest touch was too much.  So off we headed to the clinic.  Dr. Meaghan Broberg sedated Magnum and  was able to carefully cut it open a little farther and then pry it  wide enough to take off.

After thoroughly checking his toe over, there were no cuts, it didn’t appear broken, however it was definitely swollen.  Once he was no longer sedated and could walk we would be able to see if he was willing to put weight on that foot.

Icing

First round of icing while the sedation was wearing off.

Fortunately Magnum was willing to weight bear.  Treatment would involve a few days worth of pain medication, icing, and rest.

We were lucky, in part, because I was able to act so quickly. However, I regret the fact that I did not consider this item a hazard in my yard.  Once home I did a complete yard tour and picked up anything that really did not belong out on the lawn when nobody was out there to use it.  I threw away any items that were even moderately not in good shape and have marked reminders on my calendar to do this sweep through the yard every week.  With two young active human boys and three very busy dogs, there is no telling what could end up out there next!

 

Trust Your Instincts

CIMG6107

by: Jennifer Oldfield

This blog post is a personal one.  It’s about my cat Gizmo.  Gizmo is a 14 year old domestic shorthair that meows incessantly at me for food or to go to bed…or food.  He really likes food (but he isn’t at all heavy, he just likes to eat… as many small meals a day as possible).  He is a royal pain in the…. (well you know what) with all his meowing at me.  But, I love him to pieces!

A Little Bit of History

Initially he wasn’t even my cat.  He belonged to my husband before we got married, but somehow over the years he chose me.  He climbs under the covers with me in the winter and sleeps on my pillow in the summer.  He prefers to be as close to my face as possible and gets a bit frustrated when he can’t get in the right position.  Once when he was injured and had to wear a cone, he shoved it against my head so his forehead could be pressed against my face…not in the least bit enjoyable.  If you follow our clinic Facebook page you may have seen the occasional photo of him.

The photo above was taken several years ago.  He still looks the same with the exception that the white has “spread” as the grey begins to take over.  

G&P

Gizmo and Playdoh

A little more than a year ago we unexpectedly lost our other cat Playdoh.   Initially we thought we would wait a while before getting another cat…or maybe we wouldn’t bother.  I was concerned with Gizmo being older it would be hard for him to adjust to another cat in the house.  Plus, what age would be good?  I wouldn’t want a kitten, that would be too much for him, but sometimes older cats don’t adjust to each other well.  We decided to wait.

The wait didn’t last long.  Less than a month later I realized Gizmo seemed sad… and lonely.  He missed the other cat that he snuggled with… he missed his friend.  Well I guess we needed to get another cat.  It was extremely important to us to get a cat that would work for Gizmo, I didn’t want him stressed over a cat he didn’t like.  Fortunately the Moose Jaw Humane Society has a trial program, for 2 weeks you can see how the relationship works.  If it doesn’t, you can bring the cat back.  Perfect!  So off my husband and our two children went in search of the cat that would fit our home.    They checked out and visited with many cats.  Finally when my husband was beginning to feel like there wasn’t going to be the one, he found an approximately 18 month old female that felt “right”.

When he got home with her, I had given explicit instructions to keep the cats separate, I wanted to introduce them properly.  Cats base recognition on scent.  She needed to be in our home for a bit, to smell like she belonged.  This plan also didn’t last long.  About an hour after arriving home my husband called me at work and said “Gizmo is laying beside the crate she is in and won’t leave it, can I just let her out?  There hasn’t been any hissing or growling.”  So out she came and over the next few weeks they became even more bonded than Gizmo had been with Playdoh.  We named her Pekoe.  The two of them became inseparable.   The played a lot and cuddled even more.

I have tons of photos like these of the two of them curled up together.

Now the Part Where You Need to Trust Your Instincts

Over the Christmas week we were away visiting family.  When we got back I noticed something didn’t seem right.  Gizmo was super sucky – my husband thought it was just because we had been gone for a few days.  However on top of that I noticed that Gizmo and Pekoe weren’t cuddling.  In fact, they weren’t playing either.  It seemed odd, but I tried to chalk it up to the chaos of Christmas time.  With Gizmo being 14 I tend to worry about him more.

Regular blood work is important especially in older pets.  I checked to see how long it had been, 9 months.  Dr. Barb Eatock who examined him 6 months ago recommended a Wellness Panel and a thyroid check before he had a dental.  I figured now was as good a time as any to do the blood tests.  Even though I partially felt like I was being paranoid, it also just seemed like something wasn’t right.

As an additional note, he was eating and drinking well and bathroom breaks were normal, but he wasn’t coming to bed with me like he normally does either and it was just so strange to see the two cats like the photo below.

no cuddling

I brought him in for bloodwork, upon weighing him we discovered he had lost about a pound (over 5 months that is a lot for a cat, especially when we weren’t trying to lose weight).  Blood results showed nothing significant, in fact for an old cat his bloods were pretty good.  Dr. Jo-Ann Liebe decided to ultrasound him just to be sure there was nothing of interest in his abdomen.  It was all clear.  Nothing of concern there.  The plan: re-weigh him in 2-3 months and monitor at home.  A few days later he was playing with Pekoe and they were cuddled together.  Next day; back to no playing and no cuddling and he still wasn’t coming to me at night.  My gut told me this wasn’t right, something was wrong.

By fluke I had him back in the clinic 6 days after his first check.  I weighed him and over those 6 days he had lost more weight… but he was eating!  Dr. Barb Eatock and Dr. Tracy Fisher decided to do a full body x-ray, as well they would recheck his CBC.  Both showed nothing abnormal.  There is a new test out for pancreas function, it has only been out for 2 months.  Based on the weight loss and him just not being himself, they decided to run this test as well.  Bingo!  It was POSITIVE.  Gizmo has pancreatitis.  Pancreatitis in short is the inflammation of the pancreas.  This inflammation is problematic because “the normal pancreas has a number of safeguards in place to keep its digestive enzymes securely stored. If these enzymes escape, they will digest the body! This is exactly what happens when the pancreas gets inflamed: the enzymes escape and begin digesting the pancreas itself. The living tissue becomes further inflamed and the tissue damage quickly involves the adjacent liver”¹.  Continued inflammation can lead to further complications including diabetes and even death.

In dogs pancreatitis is caused by an excess of fatty food and in some breeds is very common.  Symptoms often involve vomiting and abdominal pain.  In cats however there is no definitive cause and the reason for it is almost never known.  Also the symptoms in cats are far less obvious – occasionally there is vomiting (Gizmo only vomited a tiny amount once over the course of the 2 weeks leading to his diagnosis) and reduced appetite is another symptom.  Gizmo was still eating fine, however eventually his appetite would have diminished, that is almost certain.  Gizmo’s treatment involves pain medications and a diet of a moderate calorie gastro canned food.  In a few weeks I will re-weigh him to see if he is maintaining his weight and then I will try to switch him slowly back to his regular food.  The unfortunately thing is that there is a high risk of recurrence so his diet change may be permanent and I will always need to trust my instincts when I think something isn’t right.  I want to be sure to prevent a long-term flare-up.awe

Now after only a day of medication, Gizmo is already feeling better – a definite sign is that he and Pekoe are back to snuggling on the couch.

Bottom Line

The story of my cat Gizmo is meant to help you realize you should trust when you feel something is wrong.  You know your pet better than anyone else, you know when something isn’t “right”.  Don’t make an assumption that it is old age or the weather or the hectic season or that you are imagining things.  Trust yourself when you notice their norm is no longer their norm.  Maybe there is a chance it turns out to “just be a part of aging” like arthritis, but even that causes your pet pain and there are ways to manage it so they are comfortable and pain-free.  You can do something about their comfort and their health – you, together with your veterinarian can do many things to make your pet as healthy and happy and as comfortable as possible for the longest period of time possible.  So if you find yourself in that position where you notice something is off, trust yourself and call your veterinarian.  An early diagnosis and treatment of a problem can be the difference between life and death.

20150715_230404

Resting comfortably

In Thanks

I am extremely grateful for this amazing veterinary team I have and am fortunate enough to work with.  I trust them inexplicably and I know that my pets are receiving the absolute best care that I can provide for them.    Thank you Albert North Veterinary Clinic; veterinarians and team members, you are all amazing!

UPDATE: Gizmo is doing well.  He is off pain medications and seems to be feeling pretty good.  He is back to cuddling both his housemate and his family.

1THE PET HEALTH LIBRARY
By Wendy C. Brooks, DVM, DipABVP
Educational Director, VeterinaryPartner.com

 

Top 5 Holiday Hazards

by: Jennifer Oldfield

The month of December is a busy one.  We are all preparing for whatever the holiday season means to us; parties, family get togethers, celebrating Christmas or Hannakuh, eating and being merry.  It is super important in all the hustle and bustle to be aware of the hazards this time of year brings to our pets.  If your pet gets into any of these items or anything else this holiday season you are concerned about, please contact your veterinarian for information on how you should proceed with your pet’s care.  In certain circumstances, time will be of the essence in ensuring a positive outcome.

Here are a list of the top 5 hazards to be on the watch for:

5) Tree Water and Melting Salt Crystals

If you plan to purchase a real tree, be sure to have measures in place to prevent your pet from drinking the water.  The water may contain fertilizers or other additives that can cause stomach upset, vomiting and/or diarrhea.  Also stagnant water is the perfect place for bacteria to grow, which if ingested, could also cause stomach upset, vomiting and/or diarrhea.  Read all labels carefully before adding anything to your tree’s water.

safe paw smMelting salt crystals aka ice melts and salt rock, are often used on icy surfaces.  These products contain sodium chloride or calcium chloride which can be harmful to paws and is toxic if ingested.    Pet safe ice melt products are available, so use these if you need to.  To help protect your dog either wash their feet once you are home from your walk or have them wear booties to protect them from this hazard.

4) Lighting and Candles

It is important to ensure pets are not chewing on any electrical cords, be sure to regularly check them for fraying or utilize special cordchristmas-candles tubes to put cords in to prevent pets from getting at them.  Unplug any holiday lights when you are not home to reduce the risk.

Keep lit candles out of reach of pets and small children and be sure to monitor them whenever they are lit.  Candles, oil warmers, and fireplaces are very enjoyable especially at this time of year, however they pose potential dangers to your pets, and are also fire hazards when not properly monitored.    Take preventative measures by keeping items out of reach and having a protective fire screen in place over the fireplace.

3) Plant Toxicity

There are several plants that are highly toxic to pets and some that aren’t toxic but can cause a lot of tummy upset including vomiting and diarrhea.  The ones to pay particular attention to during the holiday season are:Winter Lilies_Large

Lilies – any variety are extremely toxic to cats.  The ingestion of any part of this plant can be lethal.

Holly – when ingested can cause nausea, intense vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea for both dogs and cats.

Mistletoe – can cause cardiovascular issues, stomach upset, difficulty breathing, erratic behavior, hallucinations, collapse, and depression.

Pine needles – can cause oral irritation, vomiting, lethargy, and posterior weakness.

Poinsettia – although not toxic can cause vomiting and irritation of the mouth and stomach.

For a more complete list of toxic plants see our website.  You can also check the quick reference guide on our Mobile App available free on iTunes or GooglePlay.

You may want to consider the non-real versions of these holiday favourites to be on the safest side.

2) Tinsel, Ornaments, and Decorations

christmas candlesThe shiny tinsel strands are particularly enticing to cats.  Although non-toxic, if ingested this can become an immediate medical emergency as the tinsel could twist inside the intestines causing many problems.   Avoid decorating with tinsel at all if you have a cat.  Ornaments on the tree often resemble a pet’s favourite toy (balls!) and especially with cats, the shinier, the more exciting they are.  Keep fragile decorations hung on higher branches out of reach to minimize the risk of lacerations, choking hazards, ingestion and possible obstruction.  The same should be done with any decorations that could be considered a great toy to a pet but is really a potential hazard – place these on higher surfaces out of reach.

1) Diet and Food Hazards

It is best to continue your pet’s regular diet as much as possible to avoid stomach upset.  Too much of a good thing, is often not a good thing.  Instruct guests to resist giving pets unapproved treats.  Keep garbage can lids on tight and unattended plates and drinks out of reach.

holiday feastAlcohol, coffee (especially beans or grounds), nutmeg, foods containing the artificial sweetener xylitol, yeast, nuts, apple seeds and stems, apricots, cherries, peaches, plum pits and stems, grapes, raisins, onions, garlic (and others of the allium family), can range from potentially toxic to fatal for pets.  Chocolate contains various levels of caffeine, fat, methylxanthines, and theobromine. Toxicity levels depend on the amount and type of chocolate ingested.  Generally, the darker the chocolate, the higher levels of theobromine it contains.  Symptoms of chocolate poisoning will appear in 1 to 4 hours after ingestion and may include vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, muscle spasms, seizures, coma, increased thirst, and even death from abnormal heart rate.  Remember that cocoa is a powdered form of chocolate and is among the most toxic.

For more human foods to avoid click here.  You can also check the quick reference guide on our Mobile App available free on iTunes or GooglePlay.

We also can’t overlook that one relative – you know that sweet aunt or uncle who means well but doesn’t understand your pets are not being neglected by not sharing in the holiday feast.   Explain to these relatives that bones, fat trimmings, etc. can become a serious health problem for pets.  Caution them that bones can cause choking, dental fractures, and obstruction.  Bones can also splinter off into small, razor-sharp fragments causing potential perforation and laceration of your pet’s digestive system.  Fat trimmings and fatty foods can cause not only the obvious weight gain but also stomach upset and pancreatitis (a condition that needs to be medically treated often requiring hospitalization).  All of these situations require a vet visit that could include as little as some medication or special diet to help that upset tummy to as much as an emergency surgery to remove and possibly repair the damage from perforation, laceration, and/or obstruction.

Solutions for sympathetic relatives include safe treats in moderation (have a jar of these at the ready) or a play session.  However,  keep in mind not all pets like the immense amount of attention, especially if half the guest list consists of small children that may or may not behave appropriately towards animals.  Depending on the personality, temperament, and stress level of your dog or cat, you may want to consider whether or not they would be more comfortable in a quiet room away from the hustle and bustle of company or even at a trusted kennel.  Ultimately, you know and love your pets more than anyone and it is up to you to make the decision everyone will be happy with.

We hope these holiday hazard tips will assist you in making this season a stress free and enjoyable time for both two-legged and four-legged family and friends.

 

 

The Importance of Annual Preventative Care Exams

by: Jennifer Oldfield

September is a busy month.  Not only is it the month that students head back to school, it is also Senior Wellness Month, Happy Healthy Cat Month and Responsible Dog Ownership Month.  That is a lot going on!  These 3 events can be summed together under one simple heading – Preventative Care.  What exactly is preventative care and how can you prevent something you may not be aware of?

In general terms, a preventative is a preemptive agent or measure.  In medical terms, preventative refers to a drug, vaccine or additional agent used to prevent disease.  In animal medicine (and human too!) this refers to things such as: annual exams, vaccines appropriate to your area and lifestyle, blood workups, and if necessary, supplements (such as glucosamine) or other medications to prevent or reduce the advancement of disease or illness.

An annual exam or a Preventative Care Exam for your pet is a vital part of ensuring subtle changes in your pet’s health don’t get missed.  Minor things that you may just consider a part of aging (in senior pets) or maturing (in younger pets) may in fact be a sign of IMG_1623the beginning of something medically wrong.    For example were you aware that cats tend to hide or sleep more when they are in pain?  Have you noticed your cat isn’t coming around as much as he used to?  That she has found a new place to lay and sleep than the usual spot?  This may be an early warning sign that something isn’t right.  A preventative care exam, which may be paired with bloodwork, can help to determine the cause of those subtle changes.

The same can be said for dogs – although they don’t tend to hide when in pain, they are VERY good at masking it.  You may notice little things such as a “hitch” in his step when first rising that goes away or the usual laps around the yard aren’t as fast as they once were or don’t last as long.  Maybe she doesn’t want to retrieve her favourite toy anymore.  Little things that don’t seem to be a big deal but are just “odd” can in fact be a sign that something is wrong.

So why come in annually and not just when you notice these other things?  Annual exams give a medical record of what is normal for your pet, so that when something is amiss it can be caught.  An example of this is when a pet comes in for his annual exam and he has lost weight.  Maybe he was overweight to begin with, in which case this could be a good thing.  IMG_1080However, if the owner indicates that she hasn’t changed anything in the pet’s routine or in his eating habits then this weight loss may not be a good thing.  It may be happening because of something else occuring in the body.  Often owners won’t notice that weight change because a few pounds can be hard to notice on a pet, especially if it happens gradually.  What if that pet hadn’t been in for several years?  We wouldn’t notice that change either.

Catching something like kidney disease in its early stages could mean something as simple as changing food to help the kidneys function better.  Without this the kidney disease will continue to progress, ending with, in most cases a shorter and poorer quality life.

Another example of something the veterinarian may notice is joint health, noticing that although your pet is not necessarily old, the joints don’t feel as smooth or are stiffer when they move.  This could be the beginnings of arthritis.  Being able to recognize this and then getting them on a joint supplement appropriate for them can dramatically help slow the progression of arthritis; putting a cushion back into the joints thus reducing inflammation and pain.

Ultimately Preventative Care is Proactive Care – together with your veterinarian, annual check ups, recommended vaccines and recommended diagnostic testing can extend the life of your pet by several years.  Who wouldn’t want that?  I think we can all agree that more time with our animal companions is one of the best gifts of all!

PeeWee

 

What is your Pet Food Label Telling You? Part 2 of 2

by: Brianna DeVries

In part 1 we discussed the informaion commonly found on the front of the bag and some of the marketing trends some companies use to mislead you.  This post is about the information on the back of the bag.

Protein First and ‘Real’ Chicken

There is no AAFCO definition for ‘real’ chicken. When companies advertise whole chicken as the first ingredient it means the following: The clean combination of flesh and skin with bone, derived from the parts or whole carcass of chicken or a combination there of, exclusive of feathers, heads and feet. May or may not include entrails and includes all its moisture content.

Manufactures advertise that dogs and cats should be fed only animal based protein. Although most animal protein is defined as complete, the digestibility of the protein varies. Plant based proteins (such as gluten) help to round out the animal based protein profile. Dogs’ and cats’ bodies cannot distinguish between animal and plant sourced amino acids – so the source of the protein in terms of animal or plant is insignificant.

Ingredients are listed in descending order by weight. The protein source (such as chicken) is weighed before it is processed. As chicken is not rendered (a cooking process to remove fat) it has a moisture content of 75% to 85%. Therefore whole chicken has a very low nutrient density when compared to a concentrated chicken meal. Below is a chart to help explain.

Diet A advertises whole chicken as the first ingredient based on 200 kg/ton in the food.

Diet B does not have chicken as the first ingredient, but includes chicken meal (may be 3rd or 4th in the ingredient list) at 180 kg/ton in the food.

table
As you can see Diet A appears to have higher levels of chicken because it is the first ingredient, but this is due to the high moisture content of the chicken ao that it appears higher on the ingredient list. Once that moisture is removed it contributes less to the finished product when compared to chicken meal, which has a low moisture content.  Owners think they are getting a diet with a lot of good protein when in fact they are not getting much at all.  The term “meal” is not a negative.  It simply means ground down and dried.

Now it is time to talk about the three scariest things in pet food, corn, wheat/gluten and by-products! Dun dun dun…….

By-Products

By products could be more accurately termed co-products. They are not the primary product being produced, so they are called by-products. If you are raising chickens for breast meat, once the breasts are removed the entire rest of the chicken is a by-product.

chicken

When people hear by-products they think that it is hair, hooves and feathers. At Royal Canin by-products can include heart, lung, liver, kidney, etc. Materials that are indigestible such as hair, horns, teeth, beaks, hooves and feathers are not included. Please note that by-products used by different companies can vary in quality.

Chicken wings and thighs, summer sausage and liver are all by-products that we eat. Organ meats are more nutrient dense than meat derived from muscle and are the source of important essential nutrients. Hearts for example are a good source of taurine (an amino acid needed by cats), L-carnitine and protein. Connective tissue is a good source of chondroitin, which is good for joints. Chicken meal and chicken by-product meal are identical in digestibility, nutrient profile and have virtually no visible difference. Some food companies use chicken by-product meal instead of chicken meal because there is a growing demand for chicken meat for human consumption. Companies like Royal-Canin want a sustainable protein source that is not going to impact the public. So please do not be scared when you see that there are by-products in your pet’s food.

Corn

Many people believe that corn is just a filler and has no nutritional value. This myth is completely wrong. It is true that when we eat corn on the cob you can clearly see that the outer husk was not digested. This is due to its fibrous nature.  The corn inside the husk however is highly digestible.  When corn is ground up into a meal it becomes even more digestible. It is like when we eat corn tortilla chips. They do not come out whole. Corn is a valuable and nutritious ingredient that provides protein, amino acids, fibre, vitamins, fat and essential fatty acids. Let us take a closer look at the many things corn provides for your pet.

  • Essential fatty acids – the germ is a source of linoleic acid (omega 6 fatty acids) which promotes healthy skin and coat.corn
  • Vitamin A – involved in healthy vision and skin regeneration.
  • Vitamin B Complex – enhance immune and nervous system.
  • Essential Amino Acids (such as methionine) – corn gluten is a source of amino acids which are the building blocks for protein in the body. Protein supports muscle mass, growth and immune system function. Methionine is a natural urinary acidifier which reduces the likelihood of struvite crystal and stones from forming in the bladder.
  • Antioxidants – Beta carotene, vitamin E, lutein and zeaxanthin support eye health.
  • Fibre and Highly Digestible Carbohydrates – It is more efficient for the body to use carbs as energy and save proteins for vital functions. When protein is used for energy it increases waste products that are excreted by the kidneys. Fibre helps with intestinal mobility and health.
  • Minerals – Corn is rich in phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron and selenium.

 

People also believe that many dogs are allergic to corn. Studies have suggested that corn is equivalent to or less allergenic than other protein sources such as beef. Food allergies are responsible for less than 1 % of all skin conditions.

There is also the belief that dogs are carnivores and do not do well on a diet high in grains. The definition of a carnivore is an animal that requires certain nutrients in the diet that are more commonly found in animal sources such as the amino acid taurine. It does not mean that these animals have to live solely on meat. In fact, all-meat diets are unbalanced and can lead to vitamin and mineral excesses and deficiencies. Dogs today are better classified as omnivores like us, where their bodies utilize carbs for energy before protein and do well on plant and animal diets. Cats are obligate carnivores where they need certain nutrients from animal sources such as taurine, niacin and vitamin A. Cats also use protein before carbs for energy, so cat foods should be higher in protein than dog foods. This does not mean that cats cannot use carbs or need only animal based protein. As stated earlier, bodies cannot distinguish if an amino acid is from a plant or animal source.

As you can see corn is not a filler with no nutritional value and is not a common food allergen. Corn is more of a super food that provides protein, amino acids, fibre, vitamins, fat and essential fatty acids.

Wheat and Wheat Gluten

wheat glutenGluten has been under scrutiny due to the fad of gluten free diets and more people becoming diagnosed with celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. People then look at the family pet thinking that gluten must also be bad for them. Unfortunately quite a few people do not know what gluten actually is.

Wheat gluten specifically refers to the protein portion of the grain. To obtain it, the flour and the bran components of the whole grain are separated. To release the germ from the gluten, the wheat is first steeped and then ground. It is then spun in a centrifuge to separate the gluten and the starch. The gluten is then dried into a powder and this form is used in pet food.

Wheat gluten is a valuable protein source that has been shown to have a 99% digestibility by the small intestine. This minimizes the delivery of undigested proteins to the large bowel, thereby improving stool quality, reducing fecal odour and flatulence.  Plus it also can reduce the amount of stool you have to pick up.

Wheat gluten also has an amino acid profile that complements meat protein profiles. Wheat gluten is low in saturated fats, cholesterol and sodium.

Gluten is made up of many different proteins. The two main groups are the gliadins and the glutenins. Celiac disease is an glutenautoimmune disorder found in individuals who must avoid gliadin, a glycoprotein found in gluten sources such as wheat, rye, barley and sometimes oats. Celiac disease is serious for those affected, but it is generally well controlled by avoiding consumption of gliadin. Celiac disease is a relatively uncommon condition that affects less than 1% of the population.   This is a human disease and is not found in pets.

Gluten sensitive enteropathy is a disorder of the small intestine that results from an intolerance to gliadin. It is not a food allergy to gluten. Consumption of wheat gluten is not a risk factor for developing the disease. It is a very rare disease that only affects certain breeds such as the Irish Setter. For the rest of the pet population wheat gluten is a wonderful source of nutrition.

Comparing Diets

Now that we have had a look at some items you may see in the ingredient list and cleared up some myths and misconceptions there is one last item I would like to address. How do you compare diets?

analysisThe guaranteed analysis provides information on the levels of protein, fat, fibre, and moisture in the formulation. This is on an “as fed” basis and only provides information on the maximum and minimum levels of nutrients. It is impossible to compare diets based on the guaranteed analysis because you do not know the exact levels.  The food can literally range anywhere within the provided ranges.

A typical analysis or nutrient composition table is necessary to compare diets. The analysis gives a specific nutrient level instead of the max/min levels in the guaranteed analysis. Some companies cannot give you a nutrient table or typical analysis because their diets fluctuate frequently due to what ingredients are available through their manufacturing plant.

The best way to compare diets is to look at the level of nutrients based on the calorie or nutrient density of the diet. If diet A says to feed 2 cups for a 10kg dog and diet B says to feed 1 & ½ cups then diet B would be the better choice. Some companies sell you a big bag of food for a low cost, but you have to feed more than a higher quality diet equaling a higher cost overall.

I hope this information has helped to clear up some misconceptions and helped in educating you in some common marketing tactics. I wish I could just give you a list of diets that are good for your pet and which are bad. If you keep in mind that there is a pyramid when it comes to pet food. Grocery store diets are good, pet store diets are better and veterinary exclusive diets are best.

Pyramid

For some companies it is their job to sell you food and some of them are excellent at it. Try to not get tied up in the hype and fancy commercials. Also, “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it”. If your pet is doing well on their current diet and their weight is good, skin and coat is healthy and they are having good bowel movements then the diet you are on is most likely fine. But if your pet is having problems such as skin/coat, joint, urinary or weight problems, your veterinary staff is there to help you. Extensive research and quality control go into making veterinary exclusive diets. For more information about the research and quality control that goes into these diets please read my blog post called ‘My Tour of Royal Canin’.

I would like to leave you with one last piece of advice. Remember to regularly wash your pet’s dishes with soap and water and rinse thoroughly. Remaining food particles attract bacteria and insects. Stay healthy out there.

wash dish

 

Additional information/sources

http://www.albertnorthvetclinic.ca/diet-recommendations.pml

http://www.albertnorthvetclinic.ca/pet-food-labels.pml

http://www.albertnorthvetclinic.ca/get-the-facts.pml

Royal Canin Nutrition Module: Ingredients vs Nutrients

 

What is Your Pet Food Label Telling You? Part 1 of 2

by: Brianna De Vries

There is a lot of information out in the world today about pet food. So many ads, trends and choices. How do you decide what is best for your pet?

It can be overwhelming to wade through all of the options, advertising, and media to determine what information is accurate and what is important. The internet can be full of good information, but it can also be full of bad information and misinformed opinions. The purpose of this blog series is to provide you with some facts and knowledge to help you on your journey.

Pet food labels in Canada are regulated by the Competition Bureau of Canada and the CFIA. Unfortunately there are minimal regulations for pet food labels.

There is also another association that regulates pet food called AAFCO (The Association of American Feed Control Officials). AAFCO has no legal authority. Compliance on Canadian specific foods is voluntary and any food that is also sold in the USA is required to have an AAFCO statement. When pet food labels have an AAFCO statement it means that the company has volunteered their information to AAFCO and adhere to their general guidelines.  The AAFCO statement tells us 2 things:

  1. If the food is simply formulated or if it is feeding trial tested
    • Formulated means it follows the guidelines set out by AFFCO but has never been fed to a pet before going to market.  Your pet is the feeding trial test.
    • Feeding trial tested means it has been fed to pets prior to going to market.  However the requirements for feeding trials for the AAFCO statement are minimal.  The food only has to be fed for a minimum 6 weeks to conduct the test and the numbers of animals required to start and end the test are fairly low.  Some companies have their own separate guidelines for feeding trial testing that force them to uphold a higher standard on this part of the statement.
  2. Who the food is for – it will say either a specific life stage: puppy/kitten, adult or senior or it may say all lifestages.  (All lifestages is explained below)

Many food brands tend to market their food around current trends, such as grain free, protein first, gluten-free, etc. Product names can be misleading and confusing. We will look at some of the marketing tactics that are used and what some common terms mean. Let us start with some things you may see on the front of the bag.

Kibble Shape and Color

Some manufactures market their diets based on the shape and color of the kibble. People like the feeling of giving their kitty a bowl of heart and fish shaped kibbles or having a diet for the family dog with stripped colored pieces to represent steak or yellow kibblepieces to represent cheese. The companies do this to appeal to owners, however they have to use dyes to achieve the uniform look. Think of when Heinz made purple ketchup.

Royal Canin and Hill’s do research on kibble technology because it is important to provide kibble adapted to the specific teeth and jaw structure of the pet that will be eating the food. The more uniform the shape and size of the kibble the better.  Foods with a variety of shapes, sizes, and colours in each bag means there is no guarantee as to what your pet is getting in each feeding because each kibble is different.

Human Grade

There is no legal definition for the term human grade. Human grade essentially means that the slaughter house is certified for processing human food. It does not mean the food coming from there would necessarily be something that humans would eat. Also, once an ingredient leaves the slaughter house to a pet manufacture it cannot re-enter the human food chain and is no longer truely human grade.

Holistic, Organic and Natural

Holistic has no legal definition in terms of pet food, any manufacture can make claims of being holistic regardless of ingredients.

To be certified as organic:

  • plant ingredients in foods must be grown without pesticides, artificial fertilizers, genetic modification, irradiation or sewage sludge.
  • animal ingredients must come from animals raised on organic feed, given access to outdoors, and not treated with antibiotics or hormones.

Producers must be inspected to make sure they adhere to these standards.

Natural means that the raw ingredient has not been exposed to a chemical synthetic process, but the final product may have been.  Organic and Natural do not speak to the nutrition supplied or the quality/safety of the diet.

All Lifestage Diets

For optimal nutrition diets need to address specific life stage needs and requirements. “All lifestage diet” means that it meets the nutritional requirements of the most ‘needy’ time frame of the pet’s life which is puppy/kittenhood. Therefore, these diets need to be high enough in calories, fat and protein levels to support a growing puppy/kitten. High calories are not needed for adult pets, especially if they are spayed/neutered, because they are already prone to weight gain. Higher levels of protein are not appropriate for mature/senior animals because it is harder on the kidneys and many mature/senior pets are already developing kidney problems, too high of protein content could exaserbate the problem.  (Remember that this information is stated in the AAFCO statement on the side of the food bag).

Appealing to Owner’s Preferences

berries                This refers to diets that include ingredients such as blueberries, cranberries, meaty juices, fresh veggies and real chicken. These types of ingredients are meant to appeal to the owner. However you may notice that some of these are quite low on the ingredient list which goes in descending order by weight. If there is no measurable levels of blueberries and cranberries included in the formulation the ingredient may not provide a nutritional benefit to the pet. Think of it this way: there could be just a handful of berries in the whole batch of several bags of dog food providing almost no nutritional value then from the berry.  However when the actual antioxidante from the berry (i.e anthocyanins) is in the ingredient listing, there is a higher chance that it is of a beneficial amount for your pet.

Grain Free

Diets that are advertised as grain free again appeal to the owner’s preferences.  Grain free means no wheat, barley, rye etc. These diets will often also contain no corn. They are wheatsupplemented with a different carbohydrate source such as potato and rice (which is actually a grain). These diets may be “grain free”, but that does not mean carbohydrate free. The grain free claim is based on the misconception that dogs and cats are allergic to corn and do not tolerate carbohydrates supplied by grains. Corn and wheat allergies are very rare. We will cover myths about corn and wheat/gluten in part two.

 

Now that we have covered some common terms and marketing that often occurs on the front of the bag, in our next post we will flip it over to the back and bust some myths about the ingredient list and the guaranteed analysis.

Part 2

Additional information/sources

http://www.albertnorthvetclinic.ca/diet-recommendations.pml

http://www.albertnorthvetclinic.ca/pet-food-labels.pml

http://www.albertnorthvetclinic.ca/get-the-facts.pml

Royal Canin Nutrition Module: Ingredients vs Nutrients

Outdoor Boredom Turned into Fun

by: Jennifer Oldfield

FinnySpring is here and if your dog is anything like mine, they are ready and eager to help with the yard work!

However digging holes isn’t always what you have in mind so what can you do to stop your dog from digging?  LOTS!  Dogs generally dig for a small handful of reasons:

  • boredom
  • to bury or find something previously buried
  • searching for little critters

Many dogs also bark or are destructive when they are bored – because they figure, what else is there to do?

Some great ideas can be found on the internet and Pinterest to create a fun play area for your dog to keep them busy.  Providing them with their own “sand box” where they are allowed to dig can be helpful in preventing them from digging where you don’t want.  It will be important to teach them that this is their area to dig.  When you find them digging in the wrong location, simply tell them no and take them over to their new digging area and encourage them and praise them for digging there.  If your dog is one that likes to bury and “find” their toys, hide one part way into the sand and encourage them to “get it”.  Always provide lots of praise and encouragement when they are digging in the area that is designed for them, especially initially until they understand this is where they should go for this behaviour.

Provide activities for your dogs – areas where they can get up or go under, run across or around.  Recycling objects can be helpful in creating a great play area without too much expense.  The images below are taken from an assortment of places on the internet.

Old tires can be used for:

  • creating stacks to climb on
  • creating tunnels to run through or lay under
  • creating a sand pit

It is a good idea if you are using tires to paint them.  Also if you have a dog that is likely to want to chew on them, this may not be the best material for you to use.

Old pallets can be used to:

  • create play areas to climb or jump up and down from
    • create a mini “dogwalk” or mini “A-frame”
  • use the wood to create a boxed in area for a sand pit

There are also other ways to keep your dog from becoming bored.  Provide them with stuffed kongs that can be kept in the freezer and are ready to give when your dog is going to be hanging out and in need of something to do.  You can freeze blocks of water with treats or toys hidden inside for them to work at getting to.  Keep in mind with the size of the block of ice, your dogs typical behaviour, you don’t want a giant block if your dog is likely to try and ingest many giant pieces of ice all at once.  You also don’t want to put non-edible items inside if your dog is likely to try and ingest them.   A great start to this is to take a few pieces of watermelon, put them in a shallow dish add enough water to mostly cover them and freeze.

You can also make your own treat puzzles to keep your dogs busy.  A simple idea is to use a bit of wood and empty 2 liter bottles.  Find the instructions here for the one in the image below.  “Hide” toys, treats, and stuffed kongs in your dog’s play area to find.  A few items to discover can keep them busy for a long time

treat toy

Have fun creating an area for your dog and providing entertainment but don’t lose sight of the fact that providing your dog with a good walk or run every day is also important for not only their physical health but their mental health as well!

Additional resources:

Summer Care Tips

Stuffed kong recipes